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ISC 2019  ECONOMICS  Question Paper for Class 12

ECONOMICS

(Maximum Marks: 80)

(Time allowed: Three hours)
They must NOT start writing during this time.)
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Answer Question 1 (compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
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PART I (20 Marks)
Question 1
Answer briefly each of the following questions (i) to (x):                         [10´2]

(i)   What is meant by product differentiation in monopolistic competition?

(ii)    Explain an indifference map, with the help of a diagram.

(iii) Give two examples of each of the following:
(a) Revenue receipts of the government.
(b) Revenue expenditure of the government.
(iv) With the help of a diagram, state the behaviour of MP when:
(a) TP of the variable factor reaches maximum.
(b) TP of the variable factor falls.
(v) What is meant by High Powered Money?
(vi) Distinguish between depreciation and devaluation.
(vii) Explain any two precautions to be taken while calculating national income by
income method.
(viii) Differentiate between accounting cost and opportunity cost.
(ix) With the help of diagrams, show when the elasticity of supply is:
(a) greater than one.
(b) equal to one.
(x) What is meant by investment multiplier?
PART II (60 Marks)
Question 2
(     a)   How does an increase in income affect the demand for the following: 
(i) A normal good
(ii) An inferior good
(b) Discuss any three reasons for the leftward shift of a supply curve. 
(c) Explain how a consumer attains equilibrium using indifference curve analysis. 
Question 3
(    a)   Discuss two differences between returns to scale and returns to a variable factor. 
(b) With the help of a diagram, explain the relationship between AR and MR of a firm
under imperfect competition.
(c) Discuss any four features of monopoly market. 
Question 4
(a) Explain the various degrees of price elasticity of demand at different points on a
straight line demand curve.
(b) Show with the help of a diagram, how a perfectly competitive firm earns normal
profit in short run equilibrium.
(c) Explain with the help of diagrams how equilibrium price changes when there is
simultaneous increase of both, demand and supply.

Question 5
(     a)   Discuss any two exceptions to the law of demand. 
(b) Study the cost function of a firm given below:
Output (Units) 0 1 2 3
TC () 30 90 110 120
Calculate:
(i) AFC
(ii) AC
(iii)  MC
(c) A producer is in equilibrium when MR = MC. Explain this statement with the help
of a diagram.
Question 6
(a) Explain how public expenditure can be used as an instrument of fiscal policy to
solve the problem of:
(i) Income inequality
(ii) Inflation
(b) Differentiate between the revenue and capital components of the union budget. 
(c) Discuss briefly the various components of balance of payment. 
Question 7
(     a)   Discuss any two limitations of credit creation by commercial banks. 
(b) Explain two secondary functions of money. 
(c) Discuss any two qualitative methods and any two quantitative methods of credit
control used by the Central Bank.
Question 8
(a) What is meant by average propensity to consume? Explain its relationship with
average propensity to save.
(b) Discuss any two fiscal measures to correct a situation of deficient demand in an
economy.
(c) Explain how equilibrium level of income can be determined with the help of saving
and investment approach.
Question 9
(a) Draw a well-labelled diagram to show a circular flow of income in a two sector
model. What happens to the flow of income when savings equals investment?
(b) What is meant by economic welfare? Explain how GDP is an indicator of
economic welfare.
(c) From the following data, calculate National Income by Output method and
Income method:
Item in crores
(i) Value of output 2500
(ii) Value of intermediate consumption 1300
(iii) Subsidies 40
(iv) Rent 110
(v) Employer’s contribution to social security 30
(vi) Profit 50
(vii) Wages and salaries 340
(viii) Interest 10
(ix) Mixed income of self-employed 360
(x) Indirect tax 180
(xi) NFIA (-)30
(xii) Consumption of fixed capital 160